Cryptographic Primitives
Algorand Smart Contracts support 4 cryptographic primitives, including 3 cryptographic hash functions and 1 digital signature verification. Each of these cryptographic primitives is associated with a cost, which is a number indicating its relative performance overhead comparing with simple TEAL operations such as addition and substraction. Simple TEAL opcodes have cost 1, and more advanced cryptographic operations have a larger cost. Below is how you express cryptographic primitives in PyTeal:
Operator 
Cost 
Description 


35 
SHA256 hash function, produces 32 bytes 

130 
Keccak256 hash funciton, produces 32 bytes 

45 
SHA512/256 hash function, produces 32 bytes 

1900* 
1 if 
* Ed25519Verify
is only available in signature mode up to version 4 of TEAL. From version 5 upwards, Ed25519Verify can be used in any mode.
Note the cost amount is accurate for version 2 of TEAL and higher.
These cryptographic primitives cover the most used ones in blockchains and cryptocurrencies. For example, Bitcoin uses SHA256 for creating Bitcoin addresses; Alogrand uses ed25519 signature scheme for authorization and uses SHA512/256 hash function for creating contract account addresses from TEAL bytecode.